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Multiple Coverage

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Focuses on multiple coverage method of obtaining field data, which is an efficient means of improving signal-to-noise ratio, and discusses use on land and at sea. Describes combination with common-midpoint stacking to further improve the ratio. Illustrates survey planning to maximize coverage, minimize noise and work around physical obstacles.

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Total Number of Subtopics: 11
  • expand/collapse Background
    • Introduction
    • The Development of Multiple Coverage
  • expand/collapse The Benefits and Limitations of Multiple Coverage
    • Attenuation of Noise
    • The Redundancy of the Method of Multiple Coverage
    • Velocity Information
    • Spatial Aliasing
    • The Tolerances of Multiple Coverage and Common-midpoint Stacking
  • expand/collapse The Surface Diagram
    • Introduction
    • The Source-Receiver Plane
    • The Midpoint Diagram
    • Shots Between Groups
    • The Calculation and Annotation of Fold
    • Surface Diagrams in 3D Acquisition
  • expand/collapse Multiple Coverage at Sea
    • Introduction
    • Achieving Full Coverage
    • Waterbreak Analysis
    • Location of the Source
    • Feathering
    • The Two-ship Operation
    • 3D Coverage
  • expand/collapse Multiple Coverage On Land
    • Introduction
    • The Rollalong Switch
    • Spread Geometry
    • Irregularities in the Line Progression
    • The Crooked Line
    • 3D Acquisition Geometries
    • Other Operational Considerations
  • expand/collapse Common-midpoint Stacking
    • Common-midpoint Stacking
  • expand/collapse Migration and Multiple Coverage
    • Migration and Multiple Coverage
  • expand/collapse Vertical Seismic Profiling
    • Vertical Seismic Profiling
  • expand/collapse Summary and Conclusions
    • Summary and Conclusions
  • expand/collapse Multiple Coverage: Exercises
    • About this Course
    • Exercise 1 (Solution)
    • Exercise 2 (Solution)
    • Exercise 3 (Solution)
    • Exercise 4 (Solution)
    • Exercise 5 (Solution)
    • Exercise 6 (Solution)
    • Exercise 7 (Solution)
    • Exercise 8 (Solution)
    • Exercise 9 (Solution)
    • Exercise 10 (Solution)
    • Exercise 11 (Solution)
    • Exercise 12 (Solution)
  • expand/collapse Multiple Coverage: References and Additional Information
    • References
    • Further Reading
(Use the '+' and '-' buttons to expand or collapse each Subtopic Title individually for details.)